Ocherous colours of the sun hiding behind the ancient mountains. Bittersweet smell of spices filling the hot, heavy air. The country of marvelous beauty and strong contrasts. How do you imagine India when you hear its charming, exotic name? It is uneasy to understand the country whose Hindu calendar has six different seasons. Spring is the time when the temperatures are neither low nor high in most regions of the land. It is the period of the biggest Hindu festivals which also include several new years. Summer is the warmest season in the country. It consists of two Hindu months – Jyeshta and Aashadha. The next season is called Varsha Ritu, and during this period it rains the most. This season starts with Summer Solstice. Then comes autumn, and the temperatures in the country go down during this time of the year. The autumn is followed by the winter. This is the most pleasant season in India. The most important festivals take place in winter, such as the festival of lights. And the final winter season, which is called Shita, is the coldest period in India. This season starts with Winter Solstice.
The Process of Education
This country is a magical land, full of mysteries and wonders. There are a lot of interesting facts that could amaze everyone who knows nothing or very little about this beautiful culture. But this article we want to dedicate to India's education system. Gurukula. Historically this was the only kind of ‘school’ people in India could attend. In fact, everyone who wanted to study came to a guru’s (teacher’s) house to get educated. If people go accepted, they had to stay at their guru’s place and do household chores. In return the guru would teach people anything they were interested in: Sanskrit, mathematics, holy scriptures, etc. Today such schools also exist in India. But before the modern system was introduced in India, gurukula was the primary institution. To learn more about gurukula visit this page: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gurukula. The contemporary system of education was brought to India in the beginning of the 19th century. Students began to study the subjects which were popular in Europe. They were the English language, mathematics, the sciences, etc. Whereas in gurukula philosophy, or metaphysics, was an important subject, the new system used to tend towards more ‘modern’ disciplines.
How Does the School System Look Today?
Now, the school system in this country looks traditionally. It is divided into the following stages:
- Primary school
- Middle school
- Secondary school
- Higher secondary school (pre-university)
- Higher education
- 42 central universities
- 275 state universities
- 130 deemed universities
- 90 private universities
- 5 institutions operating under the State Act
- 33 Institutes of National Importance
- More than 30,000 colleges
India’s Central Universities
These schools are founded by Act of Parliament. Almost all these universities are funded by the University Grants Commission. This agency allocates funds for development of such institutions. These institutions include University of Delhi, South Asian University, Rani Lakshmi Bai Central Agricultural University, etc.
State Universities of India
It is the responsibility of state governments to establish state universities. Unfortunately, not all of them are funded by the governamtn. The institutions set up after June 17, 1972, cannot get funds from any India’s governmental organization. These schools include University of Mumbai, University of Calcutta, and University of Madras.
What about Deemed Universities?
Deemed universities are not exactly universities. They are tertiary institutions that offer excellent education. So, they get the status of Institutions ‘Deemed-to-be-universities’. The reality is that they have the same privileges as universities have.
What Do Institutes of National Importance Look Like?
Institutes of National Importance are established to educate highly skilled specialists. These Institutes are usually sponsored by the Government of the country and sometimes by foreign organizations. The academic objective of these schools is to provide students with an exceptional environment for research and academics. For instance, some of these Institutes are:
- Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (specializes in the sciences);
- Aligarh Muslim University (specializes in engineering and medicine);
- Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Gwalior (specializes in IT);
- Dakshina Bharat Hindi Prachar Sabha (specializes in language studies);
- Indian Statistical Institute (specializes in statistics), etc.